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综合教程3课文翻译及课后练习答案
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参考译文
 
Unit 1   Changes in the Way We Live
 
Text A
Content Questions    ( P10 )
1.    Write and live on a farm.
2.    Because they grow nearly all of their fruits and vegetables.  They have enough eggs, honey and wood.  They are very close to nature and can enjoy the beautiful scenery.  Besides, they can go skiing and skating in winter.
3.    No.  Sometimes the good life can get pretty tough.
4.    They were buried under five feet of snow from December through March.
5.    When the first spring came, it brought two floods.  The second flood refers to the good harvest in the growing season.
6.    He decided to quit his job and start to freelance.
7.    He has to crawl into black bear dens for “Sports Illustrated”, hitch up dogsled racing teams for “Smithsonian” magazine, c
8.    heck out the Lake Champlain “monster” for “Science Digest”, and canoe through the Boundary Waters Wilderness area of Minnesota for “Destinations”.
9.    As for insurance, they have only bought a poor man’s major-medical policy and the policy on their two cars.
10.  They cut back their expenses without appreciably lowering their standard of living.  For example, they patronize local restaurants instead of more expensive places in the city.  They still attend the opera and ballet but only a few times a year.  They eat less meat, drink cheaper wine and see fewer movies.
11.   A tolerance for solitude and lots of energy.
12.  They will leave with a feeling of sorrow but also with a sense of pride at what they have been able to accomplish.
13.  They chose to live in the country because they want to improve the quality of their lives.  Yes, they have finally realized their dreams.
 
Text Organization    ( P11 )
Part One  (paragraphs 1—3)  The writer views his life in the country as a self-reliant and satisfying one.
Part Two   (paragraphs 4—7 )  Life in the country is good yet sometimes very hard.
Part Three  (paragraphs 8—11) After quitting his job, the writer’s income was reduced, but he and his family were able to manage to get by.
Part Four  (paragraphs 12—15 ) A tolerance for solitude and a lot of energy have made it possible for the family to enjoy their life in the country.
 
Happy Moments and Events
1)    growing nearly all their fruits and vegetables
2)    canoeing, picnicking, long bicycle rides, etc.
3)    keeping warm inside the house in winter
4)    writing freelance articles
5)    earning enough money while maintaining a happy family life
 
Hardships
1)    working hard both in winter and in summer
2)    harsh environment and weather condition
3)    anxious moments after the writer quit his job
4)    cutting back on daily expenses
5)    solitude
 
 
Vocabulary
1. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases given in the box.  ( P15 )
1)    on balance             2) resist          3) haul           4) wicked
5)  illustrated              6) budget       7) lowering    8) boundary
9)  involved                10)economic  11) blasting    12) just about
 
2. Now use the verb in brackets to form an appropriate phrasal verb you have learned and complete the sentence with it.  ( P16 )
1)    cut back / down             2)pick up
3)get by                            4) get through
5)face up to                      6)turn in
7)making up for                 8)think up
 
3. Rewrite each sentence with the word or phrase in brackets, keeping the same meaning. (P17 )
1)    pursued his mathematical studies and taught himself astronomy.
2)    often generate misleading thoughts.
3)    attach great importance to combining theory with practice in our work.
4)    be suspected of doing everything for money.
5)    before he gets through life.
 
4. Complete the sentences, using the words or phrases in brackets ( P17 )
1. their indoor        a profit                         to invest in    
2. device               the improvement           on a global scale
3. stacked                     temptation                    never dined out
 
Confusable Use  ( P18 ) 
1.    house
2.    home
3.    home    family
4.    household
 
1.    doubt
2.    suspected
3.    doubted
4.    suspected
5.    suspect
 
Word Formation  ( P19 )
1) rise           2) final           3) regular       4) cash          5) hows and whys
6) upped        7) yellowed    8) bottled       9) lower         10) search
 
Cloze 
1. Text-related  ( P20 )
1) gets by                     2) temptation         3) get through
4) improvement            5) aside from         6) suspect
7) supplement               8) profit                9) stacking
 
2. Theme-related   ( P21 )
1) replaced            2) consider            3) quit
4) world                5) tough                6) fuels
7) provide             8) luxuries             9) balance
10) ideal
 
Translation
1. Translate the sentences into English   ( P21 )
1)    We have a problem with the computer system, but I think it is fairly minor.
2)    My father died when I was too young to live on my own.  The people of my hometown took over responsibility for my upbringing at that point.
3)    the toys have to meet strict safety requirements before they can be sold to children.
4)    Radio and television have supplemented rather than replaced the newspaper as carriers of new and opinion.
5)    When it comes to this magazine, it is a digest of articles from many newspapers and magazines around the world.
 
2. Translate the passage into English  ( P21 )
       A decade ago, Nancy did what so many Americans dream about.  She quit an executive position and opened a household device store in her neighborhood.  People like Nancy made the decision primarily for the improvement in the quality of their lives.
       But, to run a business on a small scale is by no means an easy job.  Without her steady income, Nancy had to cut back on her daily expenses.  Sometimes she did not even have the money to pay the premiums for the various kinds of insurance she needed.
       Fortunately, through her own hard work, she has now got through the most difficult time.  She is determined to continue pursuing her vision of a better life.
 
 
 
Text B 
1. Choose the best answer for each of the following.  ( P27 )
1—6.   a      c     d     b     a     c    
 
Translate into Chinese the underlined sentences in the essay ( P28 )
1.    什么? 你说那听起来不像你府上的生活?其实,不仅仅是你一个人这么想。事实上,大多数人可能都跟你一样这么想的。
2.    例如,《交给比弗吧》一剧中妈妈带着珍珠项链,穿着高跟鞋做家务。爸爸整个周末都穿着西装,系着领带。
3.    要是电视网或有线电视没有中意的节目,录像制品商店可以提供好莱坞制作的品质迥异的节目:新近发行的电影、动画片、“成人”电影、体育锻炼节目、旅游、体育及入门指南录像带。
4.    如今,妈妈在看她的有线电视销售服务节目的时候,爸爸可能想租一部动作片。而在姐姐想看《辛普森一家》时,弟弟妹妹却在玩《让我们炸毁土星》的电子游戏。
 
Match the definitions in Column B with the words and phrases in Column A.  ( P28 )
1) g        2) f         3) e         4) d
5) b        6) h        7) a         8) c
 
Fill in the gaps with words or phrases chosen from the box. ( P29 )
1) roast                 2) cable                        3) at one time
4) get along           5) missed out on            6) commute
7) taken over         8) make sense               9) go with
10) dizzy               11) gasped                    12) networks
 
 
Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
TEXT A
 
TEXT ORGANIZATION
1.
Part One  Paras 1-5   It is high time to honor the heroes who helped liberate slaves by forging the Underground Railroad in the early civil-rights struggles in America.
Part Two  Paras 6-23  By citing examples the author praises the exploits of civil-rights heroes who helped slaves travel the Underground Railroad to freedom.
2. 
Story 1 (Paras 6-10):   After winning his own freedom from slavery, John Parker helped other
slaves to escape north to Canada to get freedom.
Story 2 (Paras 11-15):  Supported by a strong religious conviction, the white man Levi Coffin helped black slaves to escape at huge risk to himself.
Story 3 (Paras 16-23):   By traveling the Underground Railroad, Josiah Henson reached his destination and became free at last.
 
 
VOCABULARY
I.
1.
1) decades                          2) historic
3) imposed                          4) religious
5) slender                           6) web
7) bade                             8) site
9) on the side                       10) authorized
11) terminal                        12) make the best of
 
2.
1) went through                      2) stood up for
3) laid down                         4) take on
5) let (us) down                      6)  draw on
7) fall into                           8)  pass for
 
3.
1) The Europeans are fully confident that the Americans will not be able to justify their measures to protect the struggling American steel industry.            
 
2) Clinton is, in the eyes of Joe Klein , staff writer of the New Yorker and author of The Natural, the most talented politician of his generation and the most compelling.
 
3) There’s not much you can do if people are really intent on destroying themselves with drug.                    
 
4) A different experience of the world could forge a completely different approach to life.
 
5) It is our conviction that cloning of human beings is bound to cause many ethical and social problems in the long run.                
 
4.
1). As for, do not compel, capture of , have forged
2) At huge risk, the mission, shelter
3) who abolished, In the eyes of, racial
 
 
II. Words with Multiple Meaning
1.    I’ll tell you in a minute how I have attained the genuine sense of belonging in America, but first let me hear about your French trip.
2.    Most McDonald’s look almost the same on the outside, but actually there are about 16 different basic designs.
3.    Loaning money from the banks is but one of the methods we can use to get through a financial crisis.
4.    This second-hand car has been nothing but trouble: it’s always breaking down.
5.    In your resume you have mentioned everything but one vital point.
6.    Our technicians have discovered a simple but effective solution to the problem.
7.    I am sorry, but I think you should not have lingered on over coffee and missed the last bus.
8.    The bankruptcy of the company was not caused by evil, but by simple ignorance.
 
III. USAGE
1. lonely                             2. friendly
3. weekly, monthly                     4. lovely
5. cowardly                           6. kindly/ saintly
7. lively                              8. motherly
 
 
COMPREHENSIVE EXERCISES
I.     CLOZE
1.
1) forged                       2)  stand up
3) compelled                    4) convictions
5) mission                      6) abolish
7) intent on                     8)  risk
9) In the eyes of                 10) threats
2.
1) assistance                    2)  involved
3) estimated                    4)  coincidence
5) emerged                     6) referred
7) numerous                    8) stationed
9) concern                     10) capture
 
II.    TRANSLATION
 
1.    Though greatly affected by the consequences of the global financial crisis, we are still confident that we can face up to the challenge and overcome the crisis.
2.    Under threat of constant sand storms, we were compelled to leave our cherished village and move to the new settlement.
3.    According to a recent online survey, a lot of consumers say they may be motivated to consider buying products shown in TV commercials.
4.    Having spotted a truck driver dumping contaminated waste alongside the river, the old man reported to the police at once.
5.    Some scientists hold to the firm conviction that people will come to like genetically modified crops someday since they can increase yields and help combat hunger and disease in the developing world.
 
2.
Shortly after he achieved freedom he became a member of an organization that assisted fugitive slaves. He secretly returned to the United States from Canada several times to help others to travel the Underground Railroad to freedom. Once some slave catchers closed in on the escaping slaves and Henson when they were on the run. He disguised them and successfully avoided capture. In addition, later he built a small settlement in Dresden in Canada for escaped slaves, setting up a chapel and a school where they could learn useful ways of making a living. He held to the conviction that slavery would be abolished, all the slaves would be liberated, and the day was bound to come when racial discrimination no longer existed.
 
 
TEXT B
 
COMPREHENSION CHECK
1.  b c d b b a
 
TRANSLATION
1.    这一和平的不服从行为在蒙哥马利引发了抗议, 最终使少数民族权利在法律上发生了变化,开创了美国民权运动的新时代。
2.    后来她解释说,这儿似乎是她结束受人摆布,弄清如果有的话她究竟有何人权的地方。
3.    但是,蒙哥马利的黑人团体认为应该团结在她周围组织抗议活动,她是适合担此重任的公民,因为她是该市最优秀的公民之一。
4.    他说:“只有极少人能说自己的行动和行为改变了国家的面貌。 罗莎帕克斯就是那些人中的一个。”
 
 
LANGUAGE PRACTICE
1. d e f b g a h c
 
2.
1) trial                          2) activist
3) equality                       4) arrested
5) transportation                  6) representatives
7) legal                         8) boycotts
9) fame                         10) representation 
11) ushered in                    12) lain in honor / in state
 
  Unit 3  Security
Text A
 
Content Questions
1.    No.
2.    No.
3.    It has been replaced by an era when people employ various secuirty devices at home.
4.    Small notices announcing that the premises are under surveillance by this security force or that guard company.
5.    The insurance company tries to impress the public that it will ensure your safety by paying for your losses.
6.    An atmosphere of fear and distrust.
7.    Because they feel threatened and want to keep outsides away.
8.    No. They are by now the most sophisticated of security sites.
9.    It is a way to hold the terrorists, real and imagined, at bay.
10.  To tell whether their friend or client is telling lies.
11.   All is done in the name of “security”. But according to the author, America, with all this “security”, is perhaps the most insecure nation in the history of civilization.
12.  We may have locked the evils out, but in so doing we have locked ourselves in.
 
Text Organization
1.
 
Parts       Paragraphs     Main Ideas
Part One Paras 1-3 In America, the era of leaving the front door on the latch has drawn to a close.
Part Two Paras 4-15      A new atmosphere of fear and distrust has crept into every aspect of daily life. As a result, security de vices, in varied forms, are put to use.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Part Three      Paras 16-19    By locking our fears out, we become prisoners of our own making.
 
2.
1) Doors are not left unlocked either in cities or in rural areas.
2)    Dead-bolt locks, security chains, electronic alarm systems and trip wires are widely in use.
3)    Suburban families have steel bars built in sliding glass doors.
4)    Small notices warning against burglary are commonly seen pasted on the windows of the most pleasant of homes.
5)    Access cards are required of those who work with medium to large-size companies.
6)    Airport security uses electronic X-ray equipment to guard against terrorism.
7)    Businessmen employ new machines linked up to their telephone to help determine whether the caller is telling lies or not.
Suburban housewives wear rape whistles on their key chains.
Language Sense Enhancement
I.   1)    electronic                 2) hooked up to
3)    suburban                4) built in
5)    uncommon        6) announcing                          
7)    survaillance              8) symbol
9)    featured                 10) attached to
 
Language Focus
Vocabulary
1. 
I.   1. 1) threathens
3) civilize
5) wandered
7) without so much as
9) hook up to
11) chart
 
 
2.   1) narrowed down
3) cut off
5) wear (the other) down
7) put up
2) by a small margin
4) closed up
6) paste
8) sideways
10) universal
12) Bathed in
 
2) looked back on
4) fit into
6) lies in
8) stand for
 
3.    1) A certain gene which is likely to make people vulnerable to asthma has been found by
researchers at the Department of Clinical Medicine in Oxford.
2)    A wardrobe with mirrored doors had to be built in so as to make their small bedroom look larger.
3)    The NBC show's opening shots feature the space shuttle Challenger blowing up in January 1986—killing all seven crew.
4)    When the teacher threatened to keep the pupils in after school they were quieted at once.
5)    Energy difficulties are a major barrier to the country's economic growth due to the fact that imported oil has absorbed 40% of its foreign exchange / because imported oil has absorbed 40% of its foreign exchange.
4.    1) Jacob looked back on his summer holidays spent on the Big Island of Hawaii with its
beautiful landscape and tranquil atmosphere as a rare escape from the madness of urban life.
2) Learning in the information era is really convenient and efficient. With your computer hooked up to the internet, you can easily obtain the electronic resources relevant to your research.
3) Detectives, who believe more than one person is behind the constant attacks in the suburb, are using a sophisticated computer system to analyze specific behavior and situations. However, they are also aware that they shouldn’t rely too much on computer because it may make errors at times..
 
II.    Collocation
1. away   2.    inside/in
3. forward/through 4.    back
5. off      6.    home
7. back, down 8.    in, out
 
III.  Usage
1.    Internet is not such an unusual word as it used to be.
2.    Most men do not look unattractive in them.
3.    Wealthy as she is, she is not unconcerned by her sudden unemployment.
4.    This claim is not unrealistic in view of a sharp decrease in the city's violent crimes.
5.    His poor health is not unrelated to his unhealthy way of life.
Comprehensive Exercises
I. Cloze
 
1.
1. Statistics                          2. rural
3. era                       4. stood for
5. on the latch                               6. vulnerable
7. barriers                                 8. electronic
9. reflection                               10.civilized
 
2.
1. tougher                   2. liable
3. shift                   4. electric
5. cautious                  6. sophisticated
7. thieves                   8. break
9. chances                        10. signs
 
 II. Translation
1.
1).   The Internet is changing the way people live, no matter whether they are in urban or rural areas.
2).   Medium-sized and small companies are more vulnerable to the threat of the global economic crisis than large ones.
3).   With regard to our term papers, the professor asked us to analyze the chart of unemployment first, and then provide critical reflections on the nation’s economic development.
4).   It never occurred to him that their team would win the basketball match by a large margin.
5).   Looking back on my twenty years’ teaching in high school, I attributed my success to patience, talent, and the constant pursuit of knowledge.
2.
It is almost impossible to keep a determined burglar out. All you can do is discourage him for a few minutes, thus exposing him to police patrols or those wandering around. Common sense tells us that lighting is a barrier to criminal activity. A light should be fixed in the doorway and switched on at night. Make sure/assure yourself that you don’t leave the door on the latch if you happen to be the last to come in. If you decide to buy a sophiticated electronic alarm system, be sure to ask for its signs and put them up on both windows and doors. In addition you may have it hooked up to a police station.
 
Unit 4 Was Einstein a Space Alien?
Text A
Content Questions (P.99)
13.  He worked as a “Technical Expert, Third Class”. He needed the job to support his young family.
14.  He published five of the most important papers in the history of science. This is because they proved that atoms and molecules existed, laid the foundation for quantum mechanics, describe the theory of special relativity, and advanced the famous equation: E=mc2
15.  He developed the Theory of Universal Gravitation then.
16.  Because his ideas were far ahead of other scientists of his time.
17.  He meant that like other scientists Einstein was a man of his time. If he hadn’t been born, his 1905 papers would eventually have been written in some form by others.
18.  What was remarkable about 1905 is that year a single person authored five of the most improtant papers in science. Einstein proposed in 1905 that light is particulate and for this he won the Nobel Prize in 1921.
19.  Because if you did so you would find yourself disagreeing with phisicist James Clerk Maxwell, an Authority Figure who had proved that light was an electomagnetic wave.
20.  He was not at all concerned about authority. He hated being told what was true.
21.  Science was dinner-table conversation in the Einstein household when he was young. His interest in science came naturally.
22.  He credited his discoveries to imagination and endless questioning more so that otthodox intelligence.
23.  He struggled to produce a unified field theory, combinging gravity with other forces of nature, but he failed.
24.  He found Einstein’s brain looked much like any other.
Text Organization (P.100)
1.  (P.100)
 
Parts      Paragraphs     Main Ideas
Part One        Paras. 1-3       A young husband and father, Albert Einstein had to work hard to support his family.
Part Two Paras. 4-12     Einstein made astonishing achievements in physics and thus revolutionized the field.
Part Three      Paras. 13-21   Einstein’s discoveries were attributable to his imagination, questioning, disregard for authority, powers of concentration, and interest in science.
Part Four Paras. 22-23   Einstein was not space alien.
2.  (P.100)
1). He felt all the pressure and responsibility of any young husband and father.
2). Galison: If Einstein hadn’t been born, his 1905 papers would have been written in some form by others.
3). Other physicists like Max Planck, more senior and experienced than Einstein, were closing in on the answer, but he got there first.
4). Einstein himself credited his discoveries to imagination and questioning more so than orthodox intelligence.
5). He failed in producing a unified field theory.
6). His brain looked much like any other.
 
 
Language Sense Enhancement (P.101)
I.   1)    concentration                2) lie down
3)    balance                   4) engross himself in
5)    stimulated                 6) more so                         
7)    curious                    8) assessment
9)    credited                   10) intelligence
 
Language Focus (P.103)
Vocabulary
1.  (P. 104)
1) accordingly         2) loose
3) concentration       4) stimulating
5) fabric              6) if anything
7) reality              8) intuition
9) trifle               10) at the turn of the century
11) mess               12) undermine
 
 
2.    (P. 105)
1) approve of  2) slow down
3) take in                         4) sucked into                                     
5) set … apart                     6) dozed off
7) call forth    8) stretch into
9) keep up with                  10) believe
 
3. (P. 105—106)
1) The beautiful Malvern Hills have provided inspiration for many artistis and musicians over the decades.
  2) Much of his success is credited to his power of imagination.
  3) The industrial revolution was firmly built on the foundations of an agricultural revolution.
  4) Alexander was determined not to make any complaints in the presence of the nurse.
  5) September 1939 saw the outbreak of the Second World War.
 
4. (P. 106)
1) At school Einstein thought about questions which his teachers did not ask. They considered his constant doubting and questioning as a character flaw, so much so that they came to the conclusion that he would get nowhere in life.
2)    For the third night in a row, I was awakened by the shrieking of car alarms at midnight. Without a decent night’s sleep, I dozed off while I was at work in the daytime. Consequently I made a mess of my job.
3)    Economists are examing two reports capturing the bleak economic picture. One shows that the outbreak of the world financial crisis has undermined consumer confidence, which is now down in its lowest levels since 1992. The other shows that unemployment rate has risen by 10%, which has strained many families’ finances.
II.    Collocation (P. 106-105)
1.    With Christmas only a week away
2.    With his physical condition improving day by day
3.    With our GDP growing steadily
4.    With all the shops closed
5.    with her eyes closed
6.    With the fog lifting during the night
III.  Usage (P. 107-108)
 
1. like/as 2. as 3. like     4. like/as
5. as/ like 6. as 7. like     8. as
Comprehensive Exercises
I. Cloze (P. 108-109)
 
(A)        
1. caution 2.    came to the conclusion
3. never get anywhere    4.    undermining
5. not give/care a fig     6.    flaw
7. beyond any doubt      8.    foundation
9. remarkable/ impressive     10.  imagination
             
(B)        
1. extent  2.    inventions
3. bet      4.    manages
5. vision 6.    eventually
7. achievement      8.    poverty
9. utilized 10.  Breakthrough
 
 
II. Translation (P. 109-110)
1. (P. 109)
1.    The volunteers sent by the Red Cross disinfected , with great caution, the drinking water in the village so as to avoid an outbreak of plague
2.    Einstein spent many years trying to unify the theories of electromagnetism and gravity but failed.
3.    Professor Wang received / won the Presidential Award fro his excellence in stimulating students’ creative imagination.
4.    As there were some major design flaws, the board of directors didn’t approve of the economic stimulus package.
5.    Having realized that nobody could help him, Jordan finally came to the conclusion that he had to face reality and meet the challenge by himself.
2. (P. 110)
What was remarkable about 2005 was perhaps that the United Nations declared it “The World Year of Physics”. It was the 100th anniversary of Einstein’s theory of relativity and the 50th anniversary of his death. In 1905 Einstein published five highly important essays in the history of science, thus revolutionizing physics. His great achievement can be credited to his impressive powers of imagination, constant questioning, and not giving a fig for authority. It is beyond doubt that Einstein was the greatest scientist in the 20th century.
 
Unit 5 Giving Thanks
Text A
Content Questions
25.  He wrote them on a ship on the way to the island of Tulagi in the South Pacific on Thanksgiving Day, 1943.
26.  Preparing a traditional Thanksgiving dinner featuring roast turkey made the writer extremely busy.
27.  The writer was thinking about Thanksgiving.
28.  He decided to write letters to show gratitude to those who had helped him in his life.
29.  He had always accepted what they had done for him, but never expressed to any of them a simple “Thank you.”
30.  He decided to write to his father, his grandmother, and the Rev. Lonual Nelson, his grammar school principal.
31.  His father had impressed upon him from boyhood a love of books and reading.
32.  He remembered that each morning Nelson would open the school with a prayer over his assembled students.
33.  He recalled how his grandmother had taught him to tell the truth, to share, and to be forgiving and considerate of others. And he thanked her for her delicious food and for all the wonderful things she had done for him.
34.  His reading of their letters left him not only astonished but also more humbled than before, because they all thanked him rather than saying they would forgive him for not having previously thanked them.
35.  The writer learned that one should learn to express appreciation for others’ efforts.
36.  The writer wished for all people the common sense to achieve world peace, and find the good and praise it.
Text Organization
1.
 
Parts       Paragraphs     Main Ideas
Part One Paras. 1-9       On Thanksgiving Day 1943, as a young coastguardsman at sea, the writer came up with the idea of expressing his gratitude to people who had helped him before.
Part Two Paras. 10-16   The writer wrote three thank-you letters to his father, the Rev. Nelson and his grandmother.
Part Three      Paras.17-23    The writer got three letters in reply.
Part Four Paras. 24-26   The writer wishes everyone to find the good and praise it.
 
 
 
2-
 
Correspondents     Letters Sent    Letters Received
Father     Thanks him for teaching the writer from boyhood to love books and reading.    Tells the writer how he, as a teacher and a father as well, felt content with his own son.
The Rev. Nelson    Thanks him for his morning
 
school prayers.
i      Tells the writer about his retirement coupled with self-doubt, and the re¬assurance brought to him by the writer's letter.
Grandmother  Thanks her for teaching the writer how to tell the truth, to share and to be forgiving, and for her good cooking and her sprinkling the writer's life with stardust. Expresses her loving gratefulness to her grandson.
 
Language Sense Enhancement
I.    1)  decades                     2) undergoing
3)    had done wrong             4) welcome reassurance
5)    appreciated                 6) brought back                          
7)    relatives                   8) accomplish
9)    consume                       10) representing
 
Language Focus
Vocabulary
1.    1) sprinkled 2) in turn
3)    reversed  4) repay
5)    at sea      6) traditional
7)    statement 8) longed for
9)    in secret  10) unloaded
11)  weep      12) under way
 
 
2.      1)     stretch out      2) make out
3) hope for     4) turns (it) over
5) put away    6) brings back
7) got to  8) go about
 
3.  1)  As supplies of traditional fuels diminish, people are working to increase the use of solar
energy.
3.   
2)    We accord high priority to meeting the challenges of economic and environmental development in the region.
 
3)    While it is true that children of today are exposed to more information than were children of the past, it does not follow that they automatically become more sophisticated.
 
 
4)    Since she borrowed those books from the library she has been immersed in British history and culture.
 
5)    Everything changed in a flash on June 1, 2000 when he lost both legs in a serious traffic accident.
 
4.    1)  I'd like to express my sincere thanks to everyone who has been so considerate of my well-
being. My heart is filled with gratitude that words cannot express.
2)    After everyone assembled on the playground amid the noise and excitement of the specta¬tors, our coach again impressed on us the need to do our best in quest of excellence.
3)    Everything I saw in my hometown was marvelous. I could hardly believe that it had undergone such swift changes through cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers and the rest in the past few years.
II.    Collocation
1, fond of 2. sick of
3. thoughtful of      4. confident of
5. conscious of       6. critical of
7. guilty of     8.ashamed of
III.  Usage
1.    To know what people really think, pay regard to what they do, rather than what they say.
2.    It is cooperation, rather than conflict, that will enable you to achieve your success.
3.    Ann made students think for themselves rather than telling them what to think.
4.    I think I'll stay at home this evening rather than go / going out.
5.    Most people are content to let perfect days happen at random rather than plan / planning for them.
 
Comprehensive Exercises
I. Cloze
 
(A)
1) at sea  2) Turning over
3) reverse 4) got to
5)    repay      6) gratitude
7) assembled  8) immersed in
9) unloading   10) swift
 
(B)
1) Instead                           2) possessions
3) richer  4) breath
5)    cherish    6) special
7) specific      8) shining
9) miracles     10) gift
 
 
II. Translation
1.
6).   Grandma took it for granted that food prices would soar, so she bought a lot of rice.
7).   I can quote you several instances of her dedication to science.
8).   The 1980s saw the start of the swift development of some special economic zones in China.
9).   Tension between the two countries stemmed in part from the latest spy affair.
10). Peter has worked in a law firm for many years. You can consider having him as your lawyer to act on your behalf when you need legal help.
 
2.
Amid the atmosphere of Thanksgiving George was immersed in the diary left to him by his father, who died at sea after he completed two successive trips around the world. The diary brought back every moment George had spent with his father and many of the specific things his father did on his behalf. George's father used to impress on him the need to undergo all kinds of hardship in quest of excellence. He also taught him that nothing in the world could be taken for granted. Even today, George still remembers how his father would quote Aesop's famous saying "Gratitude is the sign of noble souls" and tell him to accord the greatest importance to it.
Unit 6 The Human Touch
Text A
Content Questions(P.172)
37.  They found their tastes in art, chicory salad and bishop sleeves so much in tune that they set up a joint studio.
38.  Johnsy would be able to recover from pneumonia if she wanted to live.
39.  She wanted to paint the Bay of Naples some day.
40.  She could see a bare yard, and an old ivy vine climbing half way up the brick wall.
41.  Because she thought that she would die when the last leaf fell.
42.  No. Because in the text the author mentions that Behrman was a failure in art. For forty years he had been always about to paint a masterpiece, without ever actually starting one.
43.  He was upset that Johnsy should have such a silly idea.
44.  Because they were afraid that Johnsy would die if the leaves on it were all gone.
45.  She saw the last leaf on the vine.
46.  It rekindled her will to live. And she realized that it was a sin to want to die.
47.  He caught pneumonia because he painted the last leaf on a rainy and cold night in the yard and was wet through.
48.  Yes, he finished his masterpiece eventually. It was his fine painting of the last leaf, the painting that saved Johnsy.
Text Organization (P.173)
1.  (P.173)
1).   She made up her mind to die when the last leaf fell.
2).   She decided not to give up her life.
3).   Behrman, a kind neighbor, who was aware of Johnsy's state of mind, risked death to paint the last leaf and save her.  
4).   Because it was so perfect the girls both mistook it for the real thing.
2.  (P.173)
 
Scenes    Paragraphs     Characters      Events
1     Paras 1-2 Sue, Johnsy    Sue's roommate Johnsy caught pneumonia.
2     Paras 3-8 the doctor, Sue The doctor told Sue that Johnsy needed a strong will to live on.
3     Paras 9-17      Johnsy, Sue    Johnsy decided that she would die when the 1 last ivy leaf fell.
4     Paras 18-2.1   Behrman, Sue Sue told Behrman about Johnsy's fancy.
5     Paras 22-33    Sue, Johnsy    As Johnsy was encouraged by the last leaf that wouldn't give in to the weather, her
 
      
              will to live returned.
6     Paras 34-37    the doctor, Sue
■   The doctor told Sue that Johnsy would re¬cover, but Behrman caught pneumonia him¬self and his case was hopeless.
7     Paras 38-39    Sue, Johnsy    Sue told Johnsy that Behrman had performed a kind deed without any thought of self.
Language Sense Enhancement (P.174)
I.   1)    curling                      2) looking the part
3)    masterpiece                4) to excess
5)    For the rest                 6) smelling strongly of                          
7)    fancy                      8) light and fragile
9)    slight hold upon the world     10) streaming
 
Language Focus (P.176)
Vocabulary(P.176)
1.  1) masterpieces          2) fragile
3) fancy               4) nonsense
5) cling to              6)endure
7) acute               8) whistle
9) mock               10) subtracted
11) Sin                12) flutter/fluttering
 
3.    (P.177)
1) gave in/gave up  2) figure out
3) sized up                         4) wiped out                                           5) pulling up                       6) wear away
7) sit up  8) hear of / about
4.    (P. 178)
1) Illnesses usually stand out in childhood memories.
6)    According to the bulletin, Albright College now offers a joint bachelor's degree program in environmental studies together with Duke University.
7)    The new government is less oppressive, but violence still stalks the country.
8)    There is scarcely any surface water in the desert.
9)    The demand for change in the election law is so persistent that both houses have promised to consider it.
4.    (P. 178—179)
1) It was dreary lying in the tent with nothing to read, so we built a camp fire. Soon the smell
of steaks, bread and coffee mingled with that of fresh grass and earth. Other campers seemed to be doing the same. Here and there people were eating, drinking or dancing to their hearts' content, if not to excess. What a merry night!
4)    Miss Florence, our music teacher, called to us to stop singing. I didn't realize why until Sally told me in a whisper: " You are not in tune with the group!"
5)    The angry wife poured a bucket of water over her drunken husband, who was immedi¬ately wet through and stumbled backward: " You can't do without drinks? I won't hear of any excuses. You certainly don't need it to turn loose your tongue!"
 
II.    Words with Multiple Meanings (P. 179—180)
1.    He went to Paris on business last month.
2.    The train to Brussels goes at 2:25p.m.
3.    As soon as they arrived at the meadow, the shepherd let the sheep go.
4.    We went exploring together in the mountains. / We will go exploring together in the mountains.
5.    Let's go and have a drink in the bar.
6.    The store is going to close up soon.
7.    South Koreans went crazy when their soccer players beat the Spanish team in the quarter¬finals.
8.    When Mother came out of the house, she found her children gone.
 
III.  Usage (P. 180)
1.    a little white wooden house
2.    long, curly red hair
2.    a large old round table
3.    a cheap Indian restaurant
4.    a huge cool chocolate ice-cream
5.    rapid technological advance
6.    a handsome young Chinese American
Comprehensive Exercises
I. Cloze (P. 181)
 
(A)        
1. in tune 2.    Scarcely
3. in a whisper 4.    cling to
5. merry  6.    sat up
7. nonsense    8.    fancy
9. sin      10.  masterpiece
             
(B)        
1. mission      2.    involve
3. jail      4.    not
5. collect       6.    deliver
7. beautiful     8.    vocation
9. need    10.  small
II. Translation (P. 182)
1. (P. 182)
11). The red house stands out against the old trees that reach high up to the sky.
12). The salary in/for my new job is great, but for the rest, I’m not satisfied.
13). The waters of the two streams mingle near our village.
14). We should not mock at other people’s religious beliefs.
15). The curtains of the room are not quite in tune with the style of the furniture.
2. (P. 182)
Here and there we see young artists who stand out from other people. They may be in worn out jeans all the year round, or walk barefoot / in bare feet even in winter, or drink to excess, or cling to the fancy of creating a masterpiece without actually doing any creative work. In fact, many of them act like this just to look the part, or to be "in tune with" other artists. They have forgotten that only through persistent effort can one achieve success.
 
 
 
第一单元
 
生活方式的改变
 
课文A
 
在美国,不少人对乡村生活怀有浪漫的情感。许多居住在城镇的人梦想着自己办个农场,梦想着靠土地为生。很少有人真去把梦想变为现实。或许这也没有什么不好,因为,正如吉姆·多尔蒂当初开始其写作和农场经营双重生涯时所体验到的那样,农耕生活远非轻松自在。但他写道,自己并不后悔,对自己作出的改变生活方式的决定仍热情不减。
 
多尔蒂先生创建自己的理想生活
 
售姆·多尔蒂
 
有两件事是我一直想做的——写作与务农。如今我同时做着这两件事。作为作家,我和E·B·怀特不属同一等级,作为农场主,我和乡邻也不是同一类人,不过我应付得还行。在城市以及郊区历经多年的怅惘失望之后,我和妻子桑迪终于在这里的乡村寻觅到心灵的满足。
 
这是一种自力更生的生活。我们食用的果蔬几乎都是自己种的。自家饲养的鸡提供鸡蛋,每星期还能剩余几十个出售。自家养殖的蜜蜂提供蜂蜜,我们还自己动手砍柴,足可供过冬取暖之用。
 
这也是一种令人满足的生活。夏日里我们在河上荡舟,在林子里野餐,骑着自行车长时间漫游。冬日里我们滑雪溜冰。我们为落日的余辉而激动。我们爱闻大地回暖的气息,爱听牛群哞叫。我们守着看鹰儿飞过上空,看玉米田间鹿群嬉跃。
 
但如此美妙的生活有时会变得相当艰苦。就在三个月前,气温降到华氏零下30度,我们辛苦劳作了整整两天,用一个雪橇沿着河边拖运木柴。再过三个月,气温会升到95度,我们就要给玉米松土,在草莓地除草,还要宰杀家禽。前一阵子我和桑迪不得不翻修后屋顶。过些时候,四个孩子中的两个小的,16岁的吉米和13岁的埃米莉,会帮着我一起把拖了很久没修的室外厕所修葺一下,那是专为室外干活修建的。这个月晚些时候,我们要给果树喷洒药水,要油漆谷仓,要给菜园播种,要赶在新的小鸡运到之前清扫鸡舍。
 
在这些活计之间,我每周要抽空花五、六十个小时,不是打字撰文,就是为作为自由撰稿人投给报刊的文章进行采访。桑迪则有她自己繁忙的工作日程。除了日常的家务,她还照管菜园和蜂房,烘烤面包,将食品装罐、冷藏,开车送孩子学音乐,和他们一起练习,自己还要上风琴课,为我做些研究工作并打字,自己有时也写写文章,还要侍弄花圃、堆摞木柴、运送鸡蛋。正如老话说的那样,在这种情形之下,坏人不得闲——贤德之人也歇不了。
 
我们谁也不会忘记第一年的冬天。从12月一直到3月底,我们都被深达5英尺的积雪困着。暴风雪肆虐,一场接着一场,积雪厚厚地覆盖着屋子和谷仓,而室内,我们用自己砍伐的木柴烧火取暖,吃着自家种植的苹果,温馨快乐每一分钟。
 
开春后,有过两次泛滥。一次是河水外溢,我们不少田地被淹了几个星期。接着一次是生长季节到了,一波又一波的农产品潮涌而来,弄得我们应接不暇。我们的冰箱里塞满了樱桃、蓝莓、草莓、芦笋、豌豆、青豆和玉米。接着我们存放食品罐的架子上、柜橱里也开始堆满一罐罐的腌渍食品,有番茄汁、葡萄汁、李子、果酱和果冻。最后,地窖里遍地是大堆大堆的土豆、葫芦、南瓜,谷仓里也储满了苹果和梨。真是太美妙了。
 
第二年我们种了更多的作物,差不多就靠着从自家树林砍伐的木柴以及仅仅100加仑的燃油过了冬。其时,我开始认真考虑起辞了职去从事自由撰稿的事来。时机选得实在太差。当时,两个大的女儿肖恩和埃米正在费用很高的常青藤学校上学,而我们只有几千美金的银行存款。但我们一再回到一个老问题上来:真的会有更好的时机吗?答案无疑是否定的。于是,带着老板的祝福,口袋里揣着作为累积津贴的半年薪水,我走了。
 
那以后有过一些焦虑的时刻,但总的来说,情况比我们料想的要好得多。为了写那些内容各不相同的文章,我为《体育画报》爬进过黑熊窝;为《史密森期刊》替参赛的一组组狗套上雪橇;为《科学文摘》调查过尚普兰湖水怪的真相;为《终点》杂志在明尼苏达划着小舟穿越美、加边界水域内的公共荒野保护区。
 
我挣的钱远比不上担任全职工作时的收入,可如今我们需要的钱也没有过去多。我挣的钱足以应付每月600美金的房屋贷款按揭以及一家人的日常开销。那些开销包括了所有支出,如音乐课学费、牙医帐单、汽车维修以及大学费用等等。至于保险,我们买了一份低收入者的主要医疗项目保险。我们需要为每一个家庭成员的任何一项医疗费用支付最初的500美金医疗保险则支付超出部分的80%。虽然我们仍要支付小部分医疗费用,但我们的保险费也低——每年只要560美金——而我们给自己生大病保了险。除了这一保险项目,以及两辆汽车每年400美金的保险,我们就没有其它保险了。不过我们每年留出2000美元入个人退休金贴。
 
我们通过节约开支而又不明显降低生活水准的方式来弥补收入差额。我们每个月仍出去吃一两次饭,不过现在我们光顾的是当地餐馆,而不是城里的高级饭店。我们仍去密尔沃基听歌剧看芭蕾演出,不过一年才几次。我们肉吃得少了,酒喝得便宜了,电影看得少了。铺张的圣诞节成为一种回忆,我们把完成稿约作为度假的一部分……
 
我想,不是所有热爱乡村的人都会乐意过我们这种生活的。这种生活需要一些特殊素质。其一是耐得住寂寞。由于我们如此忙碌,手头又紧,我们很少请客。在作物生长季节根本就没工夫参加社交活动。吉米和埃米莉虽然参加学校的各种活动,但他俩大多数时间呆在家里。
 
另一项要求是体力——相当大的体力。小范围里实现自给自足的途径是抵制诱惑,不去购置拖拉机和其它昂贵的节省劳力的机械。相反,你要自己动手。我们仅有的机器(不包括割草机)是一台3马力的小型旋转式耕耘机以及一架16英寸的链锯。
 
没人知道我们还能有精力在这里再呆多久一也许呆很长一阵子,也许不是。到走的时候,我们会怆然离去,但也会为自己所做的一切深感自豪。我们把农场出售也会赚相当大一笔钱。我们自己在农场投入了约35,000美金的资金,要是现在售出的话价格差不多可以翻一倍。不过现在不是出售的好时机。但是一旦经济形势好转,对我们这种农场的需求又会增多。
 
但我们主要不是为了赚钱而移居至此的。我们来此居住是因为想提高生活质量。当我看着埃米莉傍晚去收鸡蛋,跟吉米一起在河上钓鱼,或和全家人一起在果园里享用老式的野餐,我知道,我们找到了自己一直在寻求的生活方式。
 
 
 
第二单元
 
民权英雄
 
课文A
 
2004年,一个纪念“地下铁路”的中心将在辛辛那提市成立。这条铁路不同寻常,它不出售车票,也无火车行驶。然而,它将成千上方的乘客送往他们梦想中的目的地。
 
给人以自由者
 
弗格斯·M·博得威奇
 
我步出这幢两层小屋,加拿大平原上轻风微拂。我身边是一位苗条的黑衣女子,把我带回到过去的向导。那时,安大略省得雷斯顿这一带住着美国历史上的一位英雄。我们前往一座普普通通的灰色教堂,芭芭拉.卡特自豪地谈论着其高祖乔赛亚·亨森。“他坚信上帝要所有人生来平等。他从来没有停止过争取这一自由权利的奋斗。”
 
卡特对其先辈的忠诚不仅仅关乎一己之骄傲,而关乎家族荣誉。因为乔赛亚·亨森至今仍为人所知是由于他所激发的创作灵感使得一个美国小说人物问世:汤姆叔叔,哈丽特,比彻·斯托的小说《汤姆叔叔的小屋》中那个逆来顺受的黑奴。具有讽刺意味的是,这一人物所象征的一切在亨森身上一点都找不到。一个不愿奋起力争、背叛种族的黑人?卡特对此颇为愤慨。“乔赛亚·亨森是个有原则的人,”她肯定地说。
 
我远道前来亨森最后的居所——如今已成为卡特曾管理过的一处历史遗迹——是为了更多地了解此人,他在许多方面堪称非裔美国人的摩西。亨森自己摆脱了黑奴身份获得自由之后,便暗中帮助其他许多黑奴逃奔北方去加拿大——逃奔自由之地。许多人和他一起在得雷斯顿这一带定居了下来。
 
但此地只是我所承担的繁重使命的一处停留地。乔赛亚·亨森只是一长串无所畏惧的男女名单中的一个名字,这些人共同创建了这条“地下铁路”,一个由逃亡线路和可靠的人家组成的用以解放美国南方黑奴的秘密网络。在1820年至1860年期间,多达十万名黑奴经由此路走向自由。
 
2000年10月,克林顿总统批准拨款1600万美元建造全国“地下铁路”自由中心,以此纪念美国历史上第一次伟大的民权斗争。中心计划于2004年在辛辛那提市建成。真是该建立这样一个中心的时候了。因为地下铁路的英雄们依然默默无闻,他们的业绩依然少人颂扬。我要讲述他们的故事。
 
 
听到轻轻的敲门声,约翰·帕克神情紧张起来。他开门窥望,夜色中认出是一位可靠的邻居。“有一群逃亡奴隶躲在肯塔基州的树林里,就在离河二十英里的地方,”那人用急迫的口气低语道。帕克没一点儿迟疑。“我就去,”他说着,把两支手枪揣进口袋。
 
二十年前,即1.9世纪20年代,生来即为黑奴的帕克才八岁就被从母亲身边带走,被迫拖着镣铐从弗吉尼亚走到亚拉巴马,在那里的黑奴市场被买走。他打定主意有朝一日要过自由的生活,便设法学会了铸铁这门手艺。后来他终于靠这门手艺攒够钱赎回了自由。现在,帕克白天在俄亥俄州里普利港的一家铸铁厂干活。到了晚上,他就成了地下铁路的一位“乘务员”,帮助人们避开追捕逃亡黑奴的人。在他正前往的肯塔基州,当局悬赏一千美元抓他,活人死尸都要。
 
在那个阴冷的夜晚,帕克渡过俄亥俄河,找到了十个丧魂落魄的逃亡者。“拿好包裹跟我走,”他一边吩咐他们,一边带着这八男二女朝河边走去。就要到岸时,一个巡夜人发现了他们,急忙跑开去报告。
 
帕克看见一条小船,便大喝一声,把那些逃亡黑奴推上了船。大家都上了船,但有两个人容不下。小船徐徐驶向对岸,帕克眼睁睁地看着追捕者把他被迫留下的两个男人团团围住。
 
其他的人都上了岸,帕克急忙安排了一辆车把他们带到地下铁路的下一“站”——他们走向安全的加拿大之旅的第一程。约翰·帕克在有生之年一共带领四百多名黑奴走向安全之地。
 
 
黑人去当乘务员常常是由于本人痛苦的经历,而那些白人则往往是受了宗教信仰的感召。在北卡罗来纳州长大的贵格会教徒利瓦伊·科芬解释说:“《圣经》上只是要我们给饥者以食物,无衣者以衣衫,但没提到过肤色的事。”
 
在19世纪20年代,科芬向西迁移前往印第安纳州的新港(即今天的喷泉市),在那里开了一家小店。人们传说,逃亡黑奴在科芬家总是能得到庇护。有时他一次庇护的逃亡者就多达十七人,他还备有一组人员和车辆把他们送往下一段行程。到后来有三条主要路线在科芬家汇合,科芬家成了地下铁路的中央车站。
 
科芬经常由于他做的工作受到被杀的威胁,收到焚毁他店铺和住宅的警告。几乎每一个乘务员都面临类似的危险——或者更为严重。在北方,治安官会对帮助逃亡的人课以罚金,或判以短期监禁。在南方各州,白人则被判处几个月甚至几年的监禁。一位勇敢的循道宗牧师卡尔文·费尔班克在肯塔基州被关押了十七年多,他记录了自己遭受毒打的情况:总共被鞭笞了35,105下。
 
至于那些黑奴,逃亡意味着数百英里的长途跋涉,意味着穿越自己极易被人辨认的陌生地域。没有路标,也几乎没有线路图,他们赶路全凭着口口相告的路线以及秘密记号——比如树上钉着的钉子——是乘务员用宋标示北上路线的记号。
 
许多黑奴在夜色掩护下赶路,有时脸上涂着厚厚的白粉。贵格会教徒经常让他们的“乘客”不分男女穿上灰衣服,戴上深沿帽,披着把头部完全遮盖住的面纱。有一次,利瓦伊·科芬运送的逃亡黑奴实在太多,他就把他们装扮成出殡队伍。
 
 
加拿大是许多逃亡者的首选终点站。那儿1833年就废除了奴隶制,加拿大当局鼓励逃亡奴隶在其广阔的未经开垦的土地上定居。其中就有乔赛亚·亨森。
 
还是孩子的亨森在马里兰州目睹着全家人被卖给不同的主人,看到母亲为了想把自己留在她身边而遭受毒打。亨森利用命运给他的一切机会,干活勤勉,深受主人器重。
 
经济困顿最终迫使亨森的主人将他及其妻儿送到主人在肯塔基州的一个兄弟处。在那儿干了几年苦工之后,亨森听说了一个可怕的消息:新主人准备把他卖到遥远的南方腹地去农庄干活。这名奴隶将与自己的家人永远分离。
 
只有一条路可走:逃亡。“我会认北极星,”许多年后亨森写道。“就像圣地伯利恒的救星一样,它告诉我在哪里可以获救。”
 
亨森和妻子冒着极大的风险带着四个孩子上路了。两个星期之后,饥饿疲惫的一家人来到了辛辛那提市,在那儿,他们与地下铁路的成员取得了联系。“他们为我们提供了食宿,非常关心,接着又用车送了我们三十英里。”
 
亨森一家继续往北走,最后来到纽约州的布法罗。在那儿,一位友善的船长指着尼亚加拉河对岸。“‘看见那些树没有?’他说,‘它们生长在自由的土地上。”’他给了亨森一美元钱,安排了一条小船,小船载着这位黑奴及其家人过河来到加拿大。
 
“我扑倒在地,在沙土里打滚,手舞足蹈,最后,在场的那几个人都认定我是疯子。‘他是个疯子,’有个沃伦上校说。”
 
“‘不,不是的!知道吗?我自由了!’”
 
 
第三单元
 
安全问题
 
课文A
 
许多年前,在美国,家家户户白天黑夜不锁门是司空见惯的。在本文中,格林叹惜人们不再相互信任,不得不凭借精密的安全设备来保护自己和财产。
 
锁之国
 
鲍勃·格林
 
小时候在家里,我们的前门总是夜不落锁。我不知道这是当地的一种说法还是大家都这么说的;“不落锁”的意思是掩上门,但不锁住。我们谁都不带钥匙;晚上最后一个回家的人把门关上,这就行了。
 
那样的日子已经一去不复返了。在乡下,在城里,·门不再关着不锁上,哪怕是傍晚一段时间也不例外。
 
在许多方面,郊区和农村甚至比巡查严密的城市街道更易受到攻击。统计显示,那些据称是安宁的地区的犯罪率上升得比城镇更为显著。不管怎么说,前门虚掩不落锁的时代是一去不复返了。
 
取而代之的是防盗锁、防护链、电子报警系统,以及连接警署或私人保安公司的报警装置。郊区的许多人家在露台上安装了玻璃滑门,内侧有装得很讲究的钢条,这样就没人能把门撬开。
 
在最温馨的居家,也常常看得到窗上贴着小小的告示,称本宅由某家安全保卫机构或某个保安公司负责监管。
 
锁成了美国的新的象征。的确如此,一家大保险公司最近的一则公益广告没有用图表表明我们所处的危险有多大,而是用了一幅童车的图片,车身上悬着如今随处可见的挂锁。
 
广告指出,没错,确是保险公司理赔失窃物品,但谁来赔偿互不信任、担心害怕这种新氛围对我们的生活方式所造成的影响呢?谁来对美国从自由之国到锁之国这一蜕变作出精神赔偿呢?
 
因为那就是现状。我们已经变得如此习惯于保护自己不受美国生活新氛围的影响,如此习惯于设置障碍,以致无暇考虑这一切意味着什么。
 
出于某种原因,当我们觉得防范周密时才安心;我们没有想到问问自己:为什么会出现这种情况?为什么非得把自己与邻居和同住一城的居民隔绝开来,这一切究竟是从什么时候开始主宰我们生活的?
 
这一切确实主宰了我们的生活。如果你在一家大中型公司上班,你上下班很可能不好随意进出。你可能随身带着某种出入卡,电子的或别的什么的,因为这卡能让你进出工作场所。也许前台的保安认识你这张脸,平日一挥手让你进去,但事实明摆着,你所任职的公司深感面临威胁,因此要借助这些“钥匙”不让外人靠近。
 
这种现象并非向来有之。即使在十年前,大多数私营公司仍采取自由出入的做法。那时管理人员根本没想到过恰当的手段是不信任他人。
 
且看各地机场。过去家长常常带孩子去登机口看飞机起飞降落。这种事再也没有了。机场不再是一个有趣的学习场所;它们成了拥有最精密的安全检查系统的场所。
 
凭借着电子透视装置,我们似乎终于想出妙计让恐怖分子无法近身,无论是真的恐怖分子还是凭空臆想的。能解决这一问题真是如释重负,于是我们就不去多想这种状况对我们的生活质量意味着什么。如今我们走过这些电子搜查器时已经看都不看一眼了;这些装置,还有它们所代表的一切已经获胜。
 
我们的居住区处在强光源的照射之下;我们连哪怕像阴影这样小小的享受也不想给自己。
 
越来越多的商人正购置连接在电话机上、能剖析来电者声音的新机器。据说那种机器能让商人知道他的朋友或客户是否在撒谎,其出错概率很小。
 
所有这一切都是以“安全”的名义实施的:我们是这么跟自己说的。我们害怕,于是我们设法把害怕锁在外面,我们认定,那就是安全的意义。
 
其实不然;我们虽然有了这一切安全措施,但我们或许是人类文明史上最不安全的国民。还有什么更好的字眼能用来描述我们被迫选择的生活方式呢?还有什么更为可悲地表明我们在这个令人困惑的新时代所感受到的惶恐之情呢?
 
我们不信任何人。郊区的家庭主妇在家庭旅行用车钥匙链上挂着防强暴口哨,我们在自我防卫方面变得如此聪明,最终全都聪明反被聪明误。我们或许是把邪恶锁在了门外;但在这么做的同时我们把自己锁在里边了。
 
那也许是我们将来回顾这一时代时记得最牢的精神遗产:在对付我们中间无形的恐惧之时,我们成了自己的囚徒。在我们这个问题重重的时代,所有的人都是囚徒。
 
 
第四单元
想象与创造力
课文A
爱因斯坦是外星人吗? 托尼.菲利普斯
艾伯特爱因斯坦被搞得筋疲力尽.连续第三个晚上,他的宝贝儿子汉斯,哭泣,让家人清醒直到黎明。当艾伯特终于睡着了是时候起床去工作。他不能跳过一天。 他需要工作来养活家人。
他轻快地走到专利局,在那里他是一个“技术专家,第三级,”艾伯特担心他的母亲。她越来越虚弱,她不赞成他与米列娃结婚,关系紧张。艾伯特看了一眼路过商店的橱窗。他的头发是一个烂摊子;他忘了梳一遍。
工作。家庭。使收支平衡。艾伯特感受到任何年轻的丈夫和父亲所有的压力和责任的。
放松,他彻底改变了物理学。
1905 年,在年龄26 时,四年前他找到了工作作为一个物理学教授,爱因斯坦提出了五个在科学史最重要的论文”——所有在他的空余时间写的。”他证明了原子和分子的存在。1905年之前,科学家们不清楚那些。他认为光是小块(后来 被称为“光子”),从而奠定了量子力的学基础,。他描述了他的狭义相对论理论:空间和时间是同一个织物的线,他提出那是可弯曲,拉伸和扭曲的。
哦,顺便说一句,E = mc2。
在爱因斯坦之前,最后一个有这样突出创意的科学家,是艾萨克牛顿先生。它发生在 1666 时,牛顿隔离自己母亲的农场去避免爆发在剑桥的瘟疫。没有什么更好的事去做,他提出了他的万有引力。几个世纪以来,历史学家称为 1666 牛顿的“奇迹年。现在这些话有不同的意义: 爱因斯坦和1905。联合国已经宣布2005 年“世界物理年“庆祝爱因斯坦“奇迹 年的100 周年。
现代流行文化吧画爱因斯坦作为一个bushy-haired super   thinker。我们被告之他的想法,是不可能远远领先于其他科学家。他一定是从其他星球来的——也许是牛顿长大的同一个星球。
“爱因斯坦不是外星人,”哈佛大学物理学家和科学史家彼得笑着说。“他是他那个时代的人。”他所有的1905年的文件揭开的(阐明的)问题正在被其他科学家研究,成败参半, “如果爱因斯坦没有出生的,[文件]将最终由他人以某种形式写出来”Galison 说。   
1905年值得注意的是,一个人撰写的全部五个文件,加上原有的,爱因斯坦以不敬的方式得到自己的结论。
例如:光电效应。这在20世纪初是一个难题。当光照射到金属,如锌,电子会飞出来。只来一点点光集中撞击自由电子这才会发生。传播的波不具有光电效果。
解决办法似乎很简单——光的微粒。事实上,这是,爱因斯坦在 1905 年提出的解决方案并在1921获得了诺贝尔奖。其他物理学家如普朗克(工作相关的问题上:黑体辐射),比爱因斯坦更先一步更有经验,步步逼近答案,但爱因斯坦先到那里。为什么呢?
这是一个问题的权威。
“在爱因斯坦的时代,如果你想说,光是由粒子构成的,你发现自己不同意的物理学家杰姆斯麦斯威尔的理论。“没有人想做这样的事,”Galison 说。麦斯威尔方程取得了巨大的成功,统一的物理电、磁和光学。麦斯威尔毫无疑问证明,光是一种电磁波。麦斯威尔是一个权威人物。
爱因斯坦不在乎权威。他没有反抗被告知要做什么,与其说,但他讨厌被告诉什么是真理。即使作为一个孩子,他不断的怀疑和质疑。“你的存在在这里破坏了班级对我尊敬,”他第七年级的老师约瑟夫博士狄根哈特说。(狄根哈特还预测,爱因斯坦将一事无成”)这一性格缺陷是爱因斯坦发现的一个关键因素。
“在 1905 年,”Galison 记录,“爱因斯坦刚刚获得博士学位。他不感激于一个导师或任何其他权威人物。”因此他的思想在自由漫游。     
回想起来,麦斯威尔是正确的。光是一种波动。但爱因斯坦也是对的。光是粒子。这个奇特的二元性物质困惑着physic101 的学生一样在1905年困惑着爱因斯坦。 怎么光是二元性?爱因斯坦不知道。
不过这不能使他慢下来。蔑视谨慎,爱因斯坦采用了直观的飞跃作为一个基本工具。“我相信直觉和灵感,”他写道,在1931 年。“有时我觉得我是对的但不知道原因。” 尽管爱因斯坦的五篇论文发表在一年的时间里,但他自童年开始就一直在深深地思考物理学。“在爱因斯坦家中,科学是餐桌上的谈话”Galison 解释到。艾伯特的父亲赫尔曼和叔叔雅各布奔跑于一家制造发电机,电弧灯,灯泡、电话的德国公司。这是世纪之交的高科技,“像现在一个在硅谷公司,”Galison 记录。“艾伯特对科技自然感兴趣。”
爱因斯坦的父母有时会带艾伯特参加聚会。保姆是不必要的:当其他人在他周围跳舞时艾伯特坐在沙发上,全神贯注,静静地做数学题。笔和纸是艾伯特的玩具!
他有令人印象深刻的专注力。爱因斯坦的妹妹,玛雅,回忆说:“即使有很大的噪音,他会躺在沙发上,拿起纸和笔,悠悠地平衡一个放在靠背墨水瓶使他自己全神贯注的沉浸在问题中就如同背景噪声促进而不是打扰他。”
爱因斯坦很聪明,但没有比他的同行更特殊的地方。“我没有特殊的才能,”他说, “我只是有强烈的好奇心。”又说:“关于我力量的流行评估?和现实的对比真是荒唐。”爱因斯坦将他的发现归功于想象力和无止境的提问而不是传统的智慧。
在后来的生活中,我们应该记住,他努力产生一个统一场理论,结合重力和其他自然的力量。他失败了。爱因斯坦的智慧不是无限的。
爱因斯坦的大脑也是如此。它被托马斯博士哈维在1955年爱因斯坦死的时候移除。他可能期待会发现一些惊人的事:但爱因斯坦的大脑看起来像任何其他一样,灰色,起皱,并且,如果非要说什么不同,比一般人的小一点。
 
第五单元
 
感恩
课文A
 
亚历克斯·黑利二战时在海岸警卫队服役。出海在外,时逢一个倍感孤寂的日子——感恩节——他开始认真思考这一节日的意义,对许多美国人而言,这个节日已成为大吃大喝、没完没了地看橄榄球比赛的日子。黑利决定写三封不同寻常的信,以此来纪念感恩节的真正意义。
 
写三封感谢信
 
亚历山大·黑利
 
那是在二战期间的1943年,我是个年轻的美国海岸警卫队队员。我们的船,美国军舰军市一号已出海多日。多数船舱装着成千上万箱罐装或风干的食品。其余的船舱装着不少五百磅重的炸弹,都小心翼翼地放在有软垫的架子上。我们的目的地是南太平洋图拉吉岛上一个规模很大的基地。
 
我是军市一号上的一个厨师,跟岸上的人‘样,那个感恩节的上午,我们忙着在准备一道以烤火鸡为主的传统菜肴。
 
当厨师的都知道,要烹制一顿大餐,摆上桌,再刷洗、收拾干净,是件辛苦的事。不过,等到太阳快下山时,我们总算全都收拾停当了。
 
我想先去后甲板透透气。我信步走去,一边深深呼吸着空气,一边慢慢地踱着步,头上仍戴着那顶白色的厨师帽。
 
我开始思索起感恩节这个节日来,想着清教徒前辈移民、印第安人、·野火鸡、南瓜、玉米棒等等。
 
可我脑子里似乎还在搜索着别的什么一某种我能够赋予这一节日以个人意义的方式。大概过了半个小时左右我才意识到,问题的关键也许在于把Thanksgiving这个词前后颠倒一下——那样广来至少文字好懂了:Giving thanks。
 
表达谢意——就如在祈祷时感谢上帝那样,我暗想。对啊,是这样,当然是这样。
 
可我脑子里仍一直盘桓着这事。
 
过了片刻,如同晨曦初现,一个更清晰的念头终于涌现脑际——要感谢他人,那些赐我多恩惠,我根本无以回报的人们。令我深感不安的实际情形是,我向来对他们所做的一之泰然,认为是理所应当。我一次也没想过要对他们中的任何一位真心诚意地说一句简单的谢谢。
 
至少有七个人对我有过不同寻常、影响深远的帮助。令人万分难受的是,我意识到,他们中有一半已经谢世了——因此他们永远也无法接受我的谢意了。我越想越感至懂愧。最后我想到了仍然健在的三位,几分钟后,我就回到了自己的舱房。
 
我坐在摊着信纸的桌旁,回想着佃门各自为我所做的一切,试图用真挚的文字表达我对他们的由衷的感激之情:父亲西蒙·A·黑利,阿肯色州派恩布拉大那所古老韵农业机械师范学院的教授;住在田纳西州小镇亨宁老家的外祖母辛西娅·帕尔默;以及我的初中校长,退休后住在亨宁以北6英里处的里普利的洛纽尔·纳尔逊牧师;
 
我的信是这样开头的广出海在外度过的这个感恩节,令我回想起您为我做了那么多事,但我却从来没有对您说过自己多么想感谢您——”我简短回忆了他们每位为我所做的具体事例。
 
例如,我父亲的最不同寻常之处在于,从我童年时代起,他就让我深深意识到要热爱书籍、热爱阅读。事实上,这一爱好渐渐变成一种家庭习惯,晚饭后大家围在餐桌旁互相考查近日所读的书以及新学的单词。我对书籍的热爱从未减弱,日后还引导我自己撰文著书。多少次,当我看到如今的孩子们如此沉迷于电子媒体时,我不由深感悲哀,他们很少,或者根本不了解书中所能发现的神奇世界。
 
我跟纳尔逊牧师提及他如何每天清晨和集合在一起的学生做祷告,以此开始小镇初中的一天。我告诉他,我后来所做的任何有意义的事,都至少部分地是受了他那些学校晨祷的影响。
 
在给外祖母的信中,我谈到了她用了种种方式教我讲真话,教我与人分享,教我宽恕、体谅他人。我感谢她多年来让我吃她烧的美味菜肴,离开她后我从来没吃过那么可口的菜肴。最后,我感谢她,因为她在我的生命中撒下美妙的遐想。
 
睡觉前,我这三封信都送进了船上的邮袋。我们抵达图拉吉岛后都寄了出去。
 
我们卸了货,又装了其它物品,随后我们按熟悉的常规,再次出海。一天又一天,一星期又一星期,我个人的经历渐渐淡忘。我们在海上航行时,有时会与邮船会合,邮船会带给我们家信,当然,这是我们视为最紧要的事情。
 
每当船上的喇叭响起广大伙听好!邮件点名!”200名左右的水手就会冲上甲板,围聚在那两个站在宝贵的鼓鼓囊囊的灰色邮袋旁的水手周围。两人轮流取出一把把信件,大声念出收信水手的名字;叫到的人一边从人群中挤出来,一边应道广来了,来了!”
 
一次“邮件点名”带给了我外祖母、爸爸以及纳尔逊牧师的回信——我读了信,既震惊又深感卑微。
 
他们没有说他们原谅我以前不曾感谢他们,相反,他们却向我致谢,天哪;就因为我记得他们做的事,并认为他们做了不同寻常的事。
 
身为大学教授的爸爸向来特别留意不使用任何过于感情化的文字,因此,当他信中写道,在教了许许多多的年轻人之后,他现在认为自己最优秀的学生当中也包括自己的儿子时,我知道他是多么地感动。
 
纳尔逊牧师写道,他那平凡的老派校长的岁月随着学校里发生的如此迅猛的变化而告结束,他也怀着自我怀疑的心态退了休。“说我做得不对的远远多于说我做得对的,”他写道,接着又说我的信给他带来了令人振奋的信心:自己的校长生涯还是有其价值的。
 
一看到外祖母那熟悉的笔迹,我顿时回想起往日站在她的白色摇椅旁看她给亲戚写信的情景。外祖母一个字母一个字母地慢慢拼出一个词,接着再写下一个词,因此写满一页要花上几个小时。外祖母最近花费不少工夫对我表达了充满慈爱的谢意,读着老人家的信我禁不住流泪——从前是她给我换尿布的呀!
 
许多年后,我从海岸警卫队退役,试着靠写作为生,我一直不曾忘记那三封“感谢”信是如何使我认识到,大凡人都暗自期望着有更多的人对自己的努力表达谢意。
 
现在,感恩节又将来临,我自问,对此文的读者,对我们的祖国,事实上也是对全世界,我有什么祝愿,因为,用一位善良而且又有智慧的朋友的话来说,“我们究其实都是十分相像的凡人,有着相似的需求。”当然,我首先祝愿大家记住这一简单的常识:实现世界和平,这对我们自身的存亡至关重要。
 
此外我还有别的祝愿——这一祝愿是如此强烈,我将这句话印在我所有的信笺底部现并褒扬各种美好的事物。”
 
 
第六单元
 
人情味
 
课文A
 
约翰西病情严重,她似乎失去了活下去的意志。医生对她不抱什:么希望。朋友们看来也爱莫能助。难道真的就无可奈何了吗?
 
 
最后一片叶子
 
欧·亨利
 
在一幢三层砖楼的顶层,苏和约翰西辟了个画室。“约翰西”是乔安娜的昵称。她们一位来自缅因州+一位来自加利福尼亚。两人相遇在第八大街的一个咖啡馆,发现各自在艺术品味、菊苣色拉,以及灯笼袖等方面趣味相投,于是就有了这个两入画室。
 
那是5月里的事。到了11月,一个医生称之为肺炎的阴森的隐形客闯入了这—它冰冷的手指东碰西触。约翰西也为其所害。她病倒了,躺在床上几乎一动不动,小窗望着隔壁砖房那单调沉闷的侧墙。
 
一天上午,忙碌的医生扬了扬灰白的浓眉,示意苏到过道上来。
 
“她只有一成希望,”他说。“那还得看她自己是不是想活下去。你这位女朋友已经下决心不想好了。她有什么心事吗?”
 
“她——她想有一天能去画那不勒斯湾,”苏说。
 
“画画?——得了。她有没有别的事值得她留恋的——比如说,一个男人?”
 
“男人?”苏说。“难道一个男人就值得——可是,她没有啊,大夫,没有这码子事。”
 
“好吧,”大夫说。“我会尽一切努力,只要是科学能做到的。可是,但凡病人开始计算她出殡的行列里有几辆马车的时候,我就要把医药的疗效减去一半。”大夫走后,苏去工作室哭了一场。随后她携着画板大步走进约翰西的房间,口里吹着轻快的口哨。
 
约翰西躺在被子下几乎一动不动,脸朝着窗。她望着窗外,数着数——倒数着数!
 
“12,”她数道,过了一会儿“11”,接着数“10'’和“9”;再数“8”和“7”,几乎同时数下来。
 
苏朝窗外望去。外面有什么好数的呢?外面只看到一个空荡荡的沉闷的院子,还有20英尺开外那砖房的侧墙,上面什么也没有。一棵古老的常青藤爬到半墙高。萧瑟秋风吹落了枝叶,藤上几乎光秃秃的。
 
“6,”约翰西数着,声音几乎听不出来。“现在叶子掉落得快多了。三天前差不多还有100片。数得我头都疼。可现在容易了。又掉了一片。这下子只剩5片了。”
 
“5片什么,亲爱的?”
 
“叶子。常青藤上的叶子。等最后一片叶子掉了,我也就得走了。三天前我就知道会这样。大夫没跟你说吗?”
 
“噢,我从没听说过这种胡说八道。常青藤叶子跟你病好不好有什么关系?别这么傻。对了,大夫上午跟我说,你的病十有八九就快好了。快喝些汤,让苏迪给她生病的孩子去买些波尔图葡萄酒来。”
 
“你不用再去买酒了,”约翰西说道,两眼一直盯着窗外。“又掉了一片。不,我不想喝汤。这一下只剩下4片了。我要在天黑前看到最后一片叶子掉落。那时我也就跟着走了。我都等腻了。也想腻了。我只想撇开一切,飘然而去,;就像那边千片可怜的疲倦的叶子
 
“快睡吧,”苏说。“我得叫贝尔曼上楼来给我当老矿工模特儿。我去去就来。”
 
老贝尔曼是住在两人楼下底层的一个画家。他已年过六旬,银白色蜷曲的长髯披挂胸前。贝尔曼看上去挺像艺术家,但在艺术上却没有什么成就。40年来他一直想创作一幅传世之作,却始终没能动手。他给那些请不起职业模特的青年画家当模特挣点小钱。他没节制地喝酒,谈论着他那即将问世的不朽之作。要说其他方面,他是个好斗的小老头,要是谁表现出一点软弱,他便大肆嘲笑,并把自己看成是楼上画室里两位年轻艺术家的看护人。
 
苏在楼下光线暗淡的画室里找到了贝尔曼,他满身酒味刺鼻。屋子一角的画架上支着一张从未落过笔的画布,在那儿搁了25年,等着一幅杰作的起笔。苏把约翰西的怪念头跟他说了,并说约翰西本身就像一片叶子又瘦又弱,她害怕要是她那本已脆弱的生存意志再软下去的话,真的会凋零飘落。
 
老贝尔曼双眼通红,显然是泪涟涟的,他大声叫嚷着说他蔑视这种傻念头。
 
“什么!”他嚷道。“世界上竟然有这么愚蠢的人,因为树叶从藤上掉落就要去死?我听都没听说过这等事:。你怎么让这种傻念头钻到她那个怪脑袋里?天哪!这不是一个像约翰西小姐这样的好姑娘躺倒生病的地方。有朝一日我要画一幅巨作,那时候我们就离开这里。真的。”
 
两人上了楼,约翰西已经睡着了。苏放下窗帘,示意贝尔曼去另一个房间。在那儿两人惶惶不安地凝视着窗外的常青藤。接着两人面面相觑,哑然无语。外面冷雨夹雪,淅淅沥沥。贝尔曼穿着破旧的蓝色衬衣,坐在充当矿石的倒置的水壶上,摆出矿工的架势。
 
第二天早上,只睡了一个小时的苏醒来看到约翰西睁大着无神的双眼,凝望着拉下的绿色窗帘。
 
“把窗帘拉起来;我要看,”她低声命令道。
 
苏带着疲倦,遵命拉起窗帘。
 
可是,瞧!经过一整夜的急风骤雨,竟然还存留一片常青藤叶,背靠砖墙,格外显目。这是常青藤上的最后一片叶子。近梗部位仍呈暗绿色,但边缘已经泛黄了,它无所畏惧地挂在离地20多英尺高的枝干上。
 
“这是最后一片叶子,”约翰西说。“我以为夜里它肯定会掉落的。我晚上听到大风呼啸。今天它会掉落的,叶子掉的时候,也是我死的时候。”
 
白天慢慢过去了,即便在暮色黄昏之中,他们仍能看到那片孤零零的常青藤叶子,背靠砖墙,紧紧抱住梗茎。尔后,随着夜幕的降临,又是北风大作。
 
等天色亮起,冷酷无情的约翰西命令将窗帘拉起。
 
常青藤叶依然挺在。
 
约翰西躺在那儿,望着它许久许久。接着她大声呼唤正在煤气灶上搅拌鸡汤的苏。
 
“我一直像个不乖的孩子,苏迪,”约翰西说。“有一种力量让那最后一片叶子不掉落,好让我看到自己有多坏。·想死是一种罪过。你给我喝点汤吧,再来点牛奶,稍放一点波尔图葡萄酒——不,先给我拿面小镜子宋,弄几个枕头垫在我身边,我要坐起来看你做菜。
 
一个小时之后,·她说:
 
下午大夫来了,他走时苏找了个借口跟进了过道。
 
“现在是势均力敌,”大夫说着,握了握苏纤细颤抖的手。
 
“只要精心照料,你就赢了。现在我得去楼下看另外一个病人了。贝尔曼,是他的名字——记得是个什么画家。也是肺炎。他年老体弱,病来势又猛。他是没救了。不过今天他去了医院,照料得会好一点。” .
 
第二天,大夫对苏说:“她脱离危险了。你赢了。注意饮食,好好照顾,就行了。”
 
当日下午,苏来到约翰西的床头,用一只手臂搂住她。
 
“我跟你说件事,小白鼠,”她说。“贝尔曼先生今天在医院里得肺炎去世了。他得病才两天。发病那天上午人家在楼下他的房间里发现他疼得厉害。他的鞋子衣服都湿透了,冰冷冰冷的。他们想不出那么糟糕的天气他夜里会去哪儿。后来他们发现了一个灯笼,还亮着,还有一个梯子被拖了出来,另外还有些散落的画笔,一个调色板,和着黄绿两种颜色,——看看窗外,宝贝儿,看看墙上那最后一片常青藤叶子。它在刮风的时候一动也不动,你没有觉得奇怪吗?啊;亲爱的,那是贝尔曼的杰作——最后一片叶子掉落的那天夜里他画上了这片叶子。”
 
 
第七单元
 
谋生
 
课文A
 
干挨家挨户上门推销这一营生得脸皮厚,这是因为干这一行不仅要经受风吹日晒还要承受一次又一次的闭门羹。比尔·波特忍受着这一切,,以及别的种种折磨。
 
一个推销员的生活
 
小汤姆·霍尔曼
 
闹钟响了。是清晨5:45。他可以在被子里再躺一会儿,听听无线电广播。天气预报员预报有雨。人们会理解的。这点他清楚。
 
他的下背有一道手术疤痕。他右手的手指严重扭曲,连鞋带都没法系。有时,他真想放弃不干了。可在他内心深处,一直回响着已故老母的激励,还有那些说他蠢,说他不能独立生活的人的声音。他一生都在拼命去证明他们错了。他决不能放弃不干。
 
于是比尔·波特起身了。
 
他摇摇晃晃迈出了去波特兰大街的头几步,波特兰大街是他为独立与尊严而孤身搏杀的战场。他是个挨家挨户上门推销的推销员,今年63岁。他的敌人——背叛了他的残疾身体和一个不再需要他的变化着的世界——正一步一步把他逼向绝境。
 
他用颤抖的双手收拾行装:深色宽松裤,蓝衬衣和与之相配的茄克衫,褐色领带,土褐色雨衣和帽子。在他看来,形象就是一切。
 
 
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